The social order of Islam is founded on sound and just values that aim to bring peace and wealth to all individuals and societies. It does not accept class struggle, social caste, or human superiority over society or the other way round, rather it promotes unity of mankind as well as equality before God.
The shared ancestry of Adam and Eve (Quran ) and the same Creator-creation bond that Divine unity has with all beings, differing only in degree of righteousness (Quran ), are believed to be the source for humankind’s unity. Since mankind originated from a single divine family, therefore, everyone is entitled to share in the common good and share in the common duty.
Islam understands human existence, not only with regard to its roots and its essence, but also with regards to the universal purpose of adoring God and upholding His cause and the cause of truth and justice, grace and mercy, brotherhood and morality. This unity of origin and the overall intent thus constitute the excellent foundation of the relationship between society and the citizen. It establishes social unity between the individual and community, which reveals itself through collective responsibility as the individual is responsible for social welfare and for God. As a result of this realization the individual members of society develop a sound social mindedness and a genuine feeling of inescapable responsibility. Thus, individual is expected to contribute to society when he has the capacity to do so. In return for this, the society is responsible for his security and welfare especially in case of his disability. Consequently it contributes to harmonious correspondence between responsibilities in the framework of social relation. The interests of individuals are maintained and protected as long as they do not clash and in the meantime, the culture and the economy cannot be exploited by individual. Thus, it is evident that the relation between individuals and communities in the Islamic social system is regulated by harmony, peace, and mutual protection.
Cooperation of goodness and piety is also an important element of the Islamic social system. In the field of social morality and ethics, it allows him to play an active role in complete recognition of the sacred rights of the individual to life, property and honour. An Individual is bound to take an active role in creating positive social morals by fostering good and prohibiting bad by any practicable means. He cannot stay indifferent in this context and must play an active part. The Islamic social order therefore offers a very elevated, healthy, and inclusive life founded on profound affection for fellows, mercy for the young, reverence for the elderly, compassion and comfort to the destitute, visiting sick, ease the grievances, sincere spirit of fraternity and social solidarity, and respect for other people’s freedom of life, property and dignity. These patterns of the Islamic social order are admirably stated in the last sermon of the prophet Muhammad (SAW) صلى الله عليه وسلم, that underlines the sanctity of life, property, and honour as the fundamental right of human beings. It also demonstrates the equality of humankind and fellowship of the believers and their mutual responsibility and concern. Therefore, belief in the Oneness of God plays a most significant role in society, which unifies and nurtures altruism, the highest moral standard among the believers through the purification of their soul from evil tendencies and selfishness. They do not work for themselves, but for every fellow and avoids all those qualities that are contradictory to the characteristics of mercy and justice of God.
Thus, the conception of society from Islamic perspective is free from any discriminatory patterns based on caste and creed, for it promotes the equality with the freedom of thought and action. This is because all mankind descended from one single pair, therefore, there is no ground for racial discrimination in an Islamic society. All tribes, races, and nations are conceived as only marks of knowing different characteristics. They are all one before God and the most honoured before Him is the one who is the most righteous (Quran: ).
The writer is a Research Scholar at BGSBU