The abrogation of Article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir was a historic and contentious move that took place on August 5, 2019. Article 370 had granted the region a special autonomous status within India, allowing it to have its own constitution, flag, and significant administrative powers. However, citing the need for greater integration and development of the region, the Indian government, decided to revoke this constitutional provision.
The move was met with both strong support and vehement opposition, sparking debates on constitutional law, the rights of the people of Jammu and Kashmir, and the political dynamics of the region. The abrogation of Article 370 marked a significant shift in the region's political landscape, with potential implications for the socio-political future of Jammu and Kashmir and its relations with the rest of India. Some of the positive points post abrogation of article 370 from police perspective are:
1. Unified Jurisdiction: After the revocation of Article 370, Jammu and Kashmir was reorganized into two union territories - Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. This led to the extension of the Indian legal and constitutional framework uniformly across these regions. For the police, it means a more unified jurisdiction and seamless coordination with law enforcement agencies from other parts of the country.
2. Enhanced Security Measures: The revocation aimed to bring about better security and counter-terrorism measures in the region. This move allowed central security forces to be deployed more effectively and provided them with broader powers to tackle insurgency and maintain law and order.
3. Investments in Infrastructure: The central government's focus on Jammu and Kashmir's development post the revocation led to increased investments in infrastructure, which may have improved the police's operational capabilities and accessibility to remote areas.
4. Integration with National Databases: The revocation likely facilitated the integration of Jammu and Kashmir's police forces with national databases, such as criminal records, wanted lists, and other information, allowing for better crime detection and criminal identification.
This security scenario report analyses the impact of Article 370 abrogation on the security situation in the UT of Jammu and Kashmir. Further, It examines 17 security indicators related to various security incidents and provides a comparative analysis between the pre-and post-370 periods. The findings reveal a significant decrease in most indicators, indicating an improvement in the overall security landscape.
1. Grenade Attacks: During the pre-370 period, the region witnessed 162 grenade attacks. However, after the abrogation, the number reduced to 138, reflecting a 15% decrease in such incidents. This decrease suggests a positive impact on public safety and a decrease in the threat posed by grenade attacks.
2. IED Blasts: The number of IED blast figures remained the same, with 19 such incidents in the pre-370 period to 19 in the post-370 period, representing no increase. This indicates improved security measures, intelligence gathering, and a more effective counter-terrorism approach.
3. Casualties in IED Blasts: Casualties resulting from IED blasts significantly reduced from 57 in the pre-370 period to 13 in the post-370 period, indicating a remarkable 77% decrease. This reduction signifies enhanced efforts in preventing and responding to IED incidents, ultimately reducing human casualties.
4. Stand-off Fire/Hit & Run Cases: Stand-off fire and hit & run cases saw a notable decrease from 314 in the pre-370 period to 181 in the post-370 period, marking a 42% decline. This decrease suggests a positive impact on maintaining law and order and preventing such incidents.
5. Weapon Snatching: Instances of weapon snatching witnessed a substantial decrease, with the number dropping from 45 in the pre-370 period to 14 in the post-370 period, representing a 69% decrease. This decrease indicates improved security measures and a reduced risk of weapons falling into the wrong hands.
6. Stone Pelting Incidents: One of the most significant changes observed is the decrease in stone pelting incidents. The pre-370 period recorded 5050 incidents, which significantly reduced to 445 in the post-370 period, marking a remarkable 92% decrease. This decrease signifies improved public order and a more peaceful environment.
7. Hartal/Bandh Calls: The number of Hartal/Bandh calls reduced from 302 in the pre-370 period to 31 in the post-370 period, reflecting an 90% decrease. This decrease indicates improved socio-political stability and a reduced impact on daily activities due to strikes or shutdowns.
8. Encounters/CT OPs: Encounters and counter-terrorism operations decreased from 539 in the pre-370 period to 369 in the post-370 period, representing a 32% decrease. This decline suggests a positive impact on the region's security, with fewer instances of confrontations between security forces and militants.
9. Civilians Killed in terrorist violence: The number of civilians killed in terrorist violence reduced from 155 in the pre-370 period to 138 in the post-370 period, reflecting a 11% decrease. This decrease indicates improved security measures and a more effective counter-terrorism strategy to protect civilians.
10.Civilians Killed during L&O: Instances of civilians being killed during L&O significantly decreased from 132 in the pre- 370 period to 0 in the post-370 period, marking a 100% decrease. This reduction suggests enhanced efforts to minimize collateral damage during security operations.
11.Civilian Injured in L&O: The number of civilians injured decreased from 9303 in the pre-370 period to 117 in the post- 370 period, representing a 99% decrease. This decrease reflects improved security measures and a reduced risk of harm to civilians.
12. Police/SF Martyred: The sacrifices made by police and security forces decreased significantly, with the number of personnel martyred dropping from 345 in the pre-370 period to 150 in the post-370 period, marking a 57% decrease. This reduction indicates improved security measures and a reduced risk for security personnel.
13. Police/SF Injured: Instances of police and security forces getting injured decreased from 13100 in the pre-370 period to 797 in the post-370 period, reflecting a 94% decrease. This decrease signifies improved security measures and a reduced risk of harm to law enforcement personnel.
14.Terrorist Recruitment: Terrorist recruitment saw a decrease from 550 in the pre-370 period to 448 in the post- 370 period, representing a 19% decrease. This reduction indicates a positive impact on disrupting the terrorist ecosystem and their ability to attract new recruits.
15.Terrorist/Terrorist Associates/Suspects Arrested: The number of arrests related to terrorists, terrorist associates, and suspects increased significantly from 1584 in the pre-370 period to 2504 in the post-370 period, marking a 58% increase. This increase suggests improved intelligence gathering, proactive measures, and an effective approach to counter-terrorism operations.
16. Abductions: Instances of abductions reduced from 28 in the pre-370 period to 09 in the post-370 period, reflecting a 68% decrease. This decrease indicates improved security measures and a reduced risk of such incidents.
17. Arson: Instances of arson saw a significant decrease, with the number dropping from 87 in the pre-370 period to 35 in the post-370 period, marking a 60% decrease. This decrease suggests improved security measures and a reduced risk of property damage due to deliberate fires.
Post the abrogation of Article 370, the security scenario in the region has witnessed significant improvements, as evident from the findings of the above report. There has been a notable decrease in various security incidents, including grenade attacks, IED blasts, stone- pelting incidents, and civilian casualties. This decrease reflects a positive impact on public safety, with a reduced threat from these incidents. Additionally, stand-off fire and hit & run cases, weapon snatching, Hartal/Bandh calls, encounters, and incidents of arson have also seen significant decreases.
The decline in these indicators indicates an overall improvement in maintaining law and order and a more peaceful environment in the region. Furthermore, there has been a decrease in civilian and security forces fatalities and injuries, highlighting enhanced security measures and a reduced risk for both civilians and personnel. Additionally, the report shows a decrease in terrorist recruitment and an increase in arrests of terrorists, their associates, and suspects, indicating a positive impact on disrupting the terrorist ecosystem. Overall, the security scenario post the abrogation of Article 370 demonstrates notable progress in ensuring public safety, mitigating security threats, and maintaining stability in the region.
Conclusion: The comparative analysis of the 17 indicators reveals a positive impact on the security situation in the region following Article 370 abrogation. Decreases in various security incidents such as grenade attacks, IED blasts, stone pelting, and civilian casualties highlight an improvement in public safety and the overall security landscape. However, the increase in arrests related to terrorists and their associates emphasizes the continued need for vigilant efforts in counter-terrorism operations and intelligence gathering. A sustained focus on implementing effective security measures, enhancing community engagement, and ongoing monitoring of security indicators will be essential to maintain and further improve the security situation.
(Note the data was provided by J&K Police Headquarters)
(Author senior staffer Greater Kashmir)