Understanding AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight infection and disease.AIDS / HIV is a syndrome because its end of stage of spectrum of the disease caused by a virus HIV & group of infections involved in this .We can say it’s a group of signs and symptoms. Theme of year 2023 is Let Communities Lead .In recent Research J&K records 6, 896 HIV Positive cases , 624 left follow up , 1362 patients have died because of this infection.

HIV can be diagnosed through blood or saliva testing. Available tests include:


Antigen/antibody tests. These tests usually involve drawing blood from a vein. Antigens are substances on the HIV virus itself and are usually detectable a positive test in the blood within a few weeks after exposure to HIV.

Antibodies are produced by your immune system when it’s exposed to HIV. It can take weeks to months for antibodies to become detectable. The combination antigen/antibody tests can take two to six weeks after exposure to become positive.

Antibody Tests. These tests look for antibodies to HIV in blood or saliva. Most rapid HIV tests, including self-tests done at home, are antibody tests. Antibody tests can take three to 12 weeks after you’re exposed to become positive.

Nucleic Acid Tests (NATs). These tests look for the actual virus in your blood (viral load). They also involve blood drawn from a vein. If you might have been exposed to HIV within the past few weeks, your doctor may recommend NAT. NAT will be the first test to become positive after exposure to HIV.

Talk to your Pathologist about which HIV test is right for you. If any of these tests are negative, you may still need a follow-up test weeks to months later to confirm the results

Tests to stage Disease and Treatment

If you’ve been diagnosed with HIV, it’s important to find a specialist trained in diagnosing and treating HIV to help you:
Determine whether you need additional testing

Determine which HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be best for you

Monitor your progress and work with you to manage your health

If you receive a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, several tests can help your doctor determine the stage of your disease and the best treatment, including:
CD4 T cell count. CD4 T cells are white blood cells that are specifically targeted and destroyed by HIV. Even if you have no symptoms, HIV infection progresses to AIDS when your CD4 T cell count dips below 200.

Viral Load (HIV RNA). This test measures the amount of virus in your blood. After starting HIV treatment the goal is to have an undetectable viral load. This significantly reduces your chances of opportunistic infection and other HIV-related complications.

Drug Resistance. Some strains of HIV are resistant to medications. This test helps your doctor determine if your specific form of the virus has resistance and guides treatment decisions.
Signs & Symptoms

Early HIV symptoms usually occur within a couple of weeks to a month or two after infection and are often like a bad case of the flu. In many people, early HIV signs and symptoms include:

Unexpected weight loss


Burning in genital area

Diarrhoea for 1 month duration

Ulcer in the mouth cavity


Tuberclosis is not response against antituberclosis drugs


Swollen lymph glands

Sore throat

Transmission of HIV

Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids. Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner. HIV is not spread through saliva.
Most by which HIV is not transmitted through
Shaking Hands

Mosquito Bite

Coughing and Sneezing

Toilet Sharing

Eating Together

Playing Together

Social Factors Which are responsible to Spread the AIDS/HIV



Social and Economic Problems

Prevention of HIV/AIDS

There is no treatment of HIV/AIDS, only one thing we do is Health education and PREVENTION.


Aejaz Iqbal Microbiologist, Nadihal.Bandipora

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