In response to our earlier write-ups on NEP 2020 published in GK, a variety of communications have been received. It was desired to design and deliberate upon 360 degree assessment model.
Accordingly, a modest attempt has been made in this regard.
The 360 degree assessment is all inclusive and in accordance with our tentative model. The four determinants of the model comprise:
1. Continuous comprehensive internal assessment;
2. End semester examination;
3. Assessing Participation in co-curricular activities; and
4. Assessing skill development and value inculcation.
In the proposed model continuous comprehensive internal assessment is spread over five activities which are conducted during the content transaction in a semester. These activities are primarily based on a set of objectives which determine respective methodologies for learner academic performance.
To ensure regularity and punctuality of students on the campus, classroom and labs marking of their attendance is very essential. To make learners habitual for studying books, journals, magazines, reports, papers, etc., they are required to visit institutional library and invest some time out of their day long schedule.
They can make fullest use of digital library to supplement the study material in print format. Accordingly, they are given some assignments to prepare them while being in the library. This will serve at least two purposes. They are expected to write an assignment with all dedication and honesty.
This will also provide them a launching pad/stepping stone to prepare them for writing a term paper, project report and a dissertation. So the writing of an assignment has a great scope in shaping the career of a learner based on some preset objectives. In order to develop confidence and communication capabilities among students presentation (oral, power point and poster) has a significant role.
They share ideas as regards a concept with their fellow students in presence of their faculty. They are encouraged to prepare themselves and respond to questions and queries raised by their fellow students. To develop scientific temper among students they are made to be engaged in lab work to understand a particular phenomenon by way of performing practicals/practicums.
This develops among them an element of curiosity based on reason, logic and rational thinking. A student must always be alert, updated and must reflect wit and presence of mind during the course of interaction. Viva voce/ interview play a great role in judging these objectives.
It is pertinent to note that memorization of content is not an objective to be obtained through CCIA. Thus, periodic tests should not be a part of internal assessment. These provide short cuts.
All universities have now realized that short cuts have ruined academic career of students. Therefore, from the current academic session the universities have abandoned with OMR/MCQs based testing. Each activity carries some value points.
At the end of each semester examination is conducted to evaluate academic achievements of students. The instrument (question paper) has been improved from time to time over the period. Earlier it was a general type of instrument and the examinees had an open choice to attempt about 50% of the question paper to qualify an examination.
However, with the implementation of NPE 1986 the course content was unitised. Accordingly, the instrument was also redesigned and offered unit-wise internal choice with alternate questions.
With the passage of time the style of instrument was again modified to accommodate three types of questions like very short answer, short answer and long answer questions with definite length of words.
Now with the implementation of NEP 2020 the instrument is further being improved. The proposed model under discussion suggests that while constructing an instrument the preset learning objectives and learning outcomes are to be kept in view.
The very short answer questions are ‘what’/ definition type of questions to assess the understanding of basic concepts covered in a particular course of study.
NEP 2020 focuses on creative and innovative thinking. It discards routine and emphasizes upon unique working. Thus, the second part of the instrument should necessarily ask ‘Why’and ‘How’ questions. The scope for memorization or reproduction of text book answer is to be avoided. The proposed model suggests introduction of case studies by replacing long answer questions.
These case studies will be based on problems like societal, industry, politics, economics, education, ethics, scientific, climate change, global warming, conflicts, disaster management, etc. in every branch of knowledge.
These cases should be based on real life situation so that examinees can analyze them and based on their understanding and analysis workout solutions. The MCQs (Tuka) are now abandoned as the examination bodies realized that they caused colossal academic damage to the society.
Until now participation of students in co-curricular activities was not assessed to be a part of score card. Nep 2020 extended academic horizons activity-wise. Students invest a good amount of time in co-curricular activities on the campus.
They are engaged in sports, cultural/literary, NSS, NCC, debates/seminars, extension and other activities. All these activities are organized in pursuance of various objectives. Students take part in indoor, outdoor and intellectual games in pursuance of the objective for their physical fitness.
They are exposed to cultural/literary activities like music, dance, drama, painting, baitbazi, mushaira, etc etc. in order to have a feel and understanding of their rich culture. Their participation in NSS, NCC and extension activities exposes them to real life situations.
By way of participation in one or the other co-curricular activity they are awarded medals, certificates and earn points. Their achievements in terms of credits they earn from these activities are now to be reflected in their score card.
The proposed model gives due space to credits earned by a student within and outside the institution in terms of skill development and value inculcation. The old marks card reflected only cognitive achievements of students. The proposed score card is thus comprehensive.
To conclude, NEP 2020 is to be studied and implemented in totality as a complete package. There should be a proper curricular-co curricular and physical-digital blending. There should be academic-societal linkages. The score card should be balanced reflecting knowledge, skill, value based performance of students.
The proposed model suggests a well-balanced score card. What Radha Krishnan Commission Report said in 1948, “If we are to suggest one single reform to transform Indian Education, it should be that of examination” is taken care of by NEP 2020 when it envisages 360 degree assessment regarding development and assessment of overall personality of students.
In short, 360 degree evaluation is based on learning outcomes in terms of understanding, comprehension, application, analysis and synthesis.
(Note: The proposed model is based on the understanding of NEP 2020 by the authors.)
The authors are former college principals.
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are the personal opinions of the author.
The facts, analysis, assumptions and perspective appearing in the article do not reflect the views of GK.