From Kashmir’s mountains to deserts of Arabia

All my rugs, carpets narrate their stories, says Kashmir’s Rug entrepreneur
Photo: Greater Kashmir
Photo: Greater Kashmir

Still in college, and barely 23, Riyaz Bhat, was already thinking dangerous thoughts in 1987. Those were days when Kashmir had no inkling of the storm about to break. Perhaps a succession of booming business seasons and unprecedented tourist arrivals had fired his entrepreneurial spirit, but why, of all places, did he want to deploy it in war-torn Afghanistan?

With family history embedded deeply in carpet-weaving, Bhat had developed a fascination for the fabled rugs of the mysterious, rugged land and the tribal life producing them. He was too obsessed with the desire to lay his hands on rare and exquisite specimens to think of anything else. So, one evening, he broke the news to his parents.

“Are you crazy?” Bhat remembers his father exclaiming. “First kill me and then leave.”

Recalls Bhat: “One evening in June 1987 while I was having dinner with my parents, I tried to overcome their apprehension. I knew what I was going to ask them would immediately be refused as it was impossible for them to allow me to travel to Afghanistan, where a fierce war was on.”

Bhat was determined to have his way. He reasoned with his parents that he was not joining the Mujahideen in their war but was keen to visit tribal areas and study their varied designs of craft and rug-making.

“I wanted to come in contact with the tribes who, though not formally educated, made the most incredible rugs. I wanted to learn their craft,” he says.

“Though my security was a matter of grave concern, I was too obsessed to think about it.”

It seems luck was in Bhat’s favor as he had an uncle living in Pakistan and dealing in rugs. He joyfully reminisces: “My uncle convinced my parents that I be allowed to travel to Pakistan, and with his help to Afghanistan.”

“It was a dream come true for me. I ultimately moved to Afghanistan to actually live with the tribal people of the area and learn their art of rug making.”

Hailing from a carpet weaving family of old Srinagar, Riyaz has visited Kashmir 25 times since then in search of practical knowledge of rugs. He said he would never forget the day when he went to his father for permission to visit Afghanistan. “Carpet weaving has been our family business for 500 years, so I obviously was attracted to it. My father is an excellent weaver and he has created some of the world's most exquisite carpets. I started reading about rug making and its various designs. The moment rugs would come to my mind it would connect me to Central Asia,” Bhat says.

He said he learnt the basics of rugs and carpet-weaving from his family and relatives, a few of whom were born geniuses.

He read a vast amount of literature on how a workshop rug is different from a family or tribal rug.

“A family rug, or tribal rug, is one made by one person for his or her own use. So when they make this rug, they also use it, and any genuine tribal rug therefore will never be a new one. They make it and use it in their tent, after which they make a new one and sell the old one,” he says.

“We still have nomadic life in Afghanistan. I wanted to see these nomads and live with them; they influenced my life and shaped my zeal for this business,” Bhat says. After spending some time in Afghanistan Riyaz moved back to Pakistan and worked with his maternal uncle, who is a Pakistani national.

Having established his business in Qatar, Bhat claims that he has had an opportunity of displaying the rugs before the US Pentagon team in 2003, who were accompanied by then US president, George W. Bush.

“I was invited to the US Embassy to display the tribal rugs and almost all the pentagon people saw my rugs and I made a good sale. Colin Powel and some other officials appreciated my work too,” he says.

“All my rugs, carpets narrate their stories. I have Kashmiri carpets and tribal rugs in my showroom and I always treat them as my children. When I sell any rug, I tell my customers to treat them delicately. I call them their guardians,” he says. “Most importantly they belong to the places which are trouble hit and you can easily find in their designs.”

Notably, rug making is the ancient art of making rugs and carpets by hand. Rug making is a traditional art around the world, particularly in Middle Eastern nations such as Iran and Afghanistan. Artists in these countries still practice carpet and rug making for both domestic and international markets. Rug making has been practiced in the Middle East for more than 2,500 years. Woven floor coverings were essential for controlling dust and conserving warmth in harsh climates. The nomadic tribes of central Asia also appreciated rugs because they could be easily rolled up and transported when it was time to move the camp. Over the centuries, rug making became an essential part of the artistic heritage of these regions. In the 21st century, traditional rug makers still use these same techniques to make rugs and carpets.

Rug Man’s Shop: A Treasure Trove of Carpets

“Located half-way down Al Mergab Street sits an unassuming shop bearing the name ‘Kashmir Handicrafts Emporium’. Yet opening the door is akin to opening a Pandora’s Box of delights; Riyaz Bhat, alias the ‘Rug Man’ takes you happily on a virtual journey to the tribal heart of Afghanistan” That is how a foreign tourist described Bhat’s shop on his blog.

When Bhat opened his shop in the year 2000, he was apprehensive of its future. “When you start a new business it is dark in front of you, you don’t know what’s going to happen, new country, new people, new area,’ he says.

However, on his second day of business Bhat sold three tribal carpets to his first customer, the dean of VCU Qatar. So impressed was the latter with his shop, he brought him another customer the following day, and she in turn brought another. Suddenly Bhat was doing handsome business and the name ‘Rug Man’ came to do the streets everywhere. He explained how what began as an endearing term of reference helped his business grow. “It’s become a trademark now, everyone knows the Rug Man, and I have a website under that name.”

Upstairs in Kashmir Handicrafts Emporium, Bhat says, is Aladdin’s cave of rugs. This room, otherwise plain and unembellished, dazzles with intricately and colourfully designed carpets. Each rug is wreathed in history and tells a story of a nomadic family; these are more than just rugs, they are pieces of art. The rugs are made mainly by the women in the tribe; women who are uneducated, yet the designs they weave are amazingly detailed and in many cases symmetrical. These designs have been passed from mothers to their daughters across the ages. Depending on the size these rugs can take years to make, with colours sourced from plants and roots used to make natural dyes.

The majority of these nomadic rugs are sourced from Afghanistan. “It’s beautiful, lush green with forests, lakes and streams,” says Bhat. “Most tribes from neighbouring areas try to go to Afghanistan and settle there. There are now a variety of tribes there, rather than just native Afghan tribes.”

Each year Bhat makes his journey to Afghanistan to purchase nomadic rugs. “We go through the most dangerous road, the Afghanistan and Pakistan border. My cousin and I have five gunmen with us. These gunmen are legal and licensed bodyguards who travel with us in two jeeps,” he says. “Everyone knows we have weapons and they do not come near us. I have been doing this for the last 23 years.”

It’s a dangerous expedition to make, but Bhat is determined not to desert the tribes who rely on him for their livelihood: “I am very happy, and deep inside I feel I am supporting a good cause, helping these people and buying their rugs and selling them here. I am risking my life going there, but I still want to go and meet these wonderful people, it’s amazing. For all these years these people have suffered, living difficult lives. But that hasn’t killed their love for art.”

Bhat’s absolute enthusiasm is infectious as he speaks animatedly about purchasing not just a handmade tribal rug but also a family heirloom. “They are like magnificent paintings. The magic of tribal rugs is that they never look used or worn. You will never have to change it; it will remain with you forever.”

Director, Handicrafts, Mahmood Ahmad Shah, says that the Handicrafts of Jammu & Kashmir have acquired worldwide fame for their exquisite refinement and aesthetic elegance.

“These crafts have great diversity and demand,” he says. “There are nearly 2.50 lacs artisans directly dependent upon handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir for their livelihood and there is still great potential for more employment to be generated in this sector if markets are expanded and demand is increased. Presently, our handicrafts earn around Rs.1700 crores as foreign exchange every year.

In order to give greater impetus to the development of handicrafts, the Government has been constantly introducing new programmes and schemes. Craft Bazars and Expos are being organized in many places in the country and in these exhibitions the artisans come directly into contact with the customers and sell their products without the intervention of the middlemen. The artisans have been able to earn crores of rupees through these diversified marketing out-lets. To ensure that artisan have enough liquidity the Government has introduced Artisan Credit Card Scheme under which the Government pays 10 per cent interest subsidy on loans upto to Rs.1.00 lacs for a period of 5 years.

‘Designs that stay forever’

The origin of hand knotted carpets locally known as "Kal baffi" dates back to the 15th century after which it progressively attained the high degree of perfection. It is said that Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin brought carpet weavers from Persia and central Asia into Kashmir to train the local inhabitants.

Carpets from 200 knots to 900 knots/sq. inch both in wool & silk yarn have attained such excellence that they rank amongst the finest in the world. The loom used in Kashmir carpet weaving is composed of two horizontal wooden beams between which the wrap threads are stretched, one beam in front of the weaver and the second behind the first. The difference between a carpet and other hand woven rugs lies in the fact that short lengths of the thread or yarn are tied to wrap chains to form the pile of the carpet. These are commonly called knots though it is a loop rather than an actual knot.

There are different types of knots and in Kashmir the Farsi baff and the Persian system known as Sehna, or Sinneh, knot is originally used. Very simple tools are used to thread these knots, a wood or Metal comb to push knots and weft tightly together and a pair of short scissors to cut the pile of the carpet to an even form once it is finished.

Artibal Design

Carpets in 18x18, or 20x20 knots per sq. inch are commonly made in Kashmir. Some very fine silk carpets in different sizes have been created with density of knots as high as 3600 knots per sq. inch but these are rare Exhibits of skill and mainly made for display or museum pieces. The designs reveal themselves along the weft lines in wool or silk, while the warp is drawn in cotton. Quality and hence value, is determined by the number of knots to the square inch and fineness of the material used.

Kirman Design

Kashmir also excels in the manufacture of silk carpets. Designs and patterns in Kashmir carpets continue to be predominantly inspired by classical Persian and Central - Asia rugs. Thus Kashmir has been creating Kashan and Kirman, Tabriz and Isfahan, Meshed and Bokhara with such superb artistry that these can compare with the best in the regions of their origin.

5 things to keep in mind before entering carpet industry

Exquisite Indian Handmade Carpets are not just pieces of a rich way of life in present-day times yet, in addition, reflect an ageless blend of nature, culture, and craftsmanship from the world over. The specialty of rug weaving in India was presented by Sultan Zain-ui-Abadin, who brought some Persian floor covering weavers into Kashmir in the fifteenth century to train the neighborhood occupants. It, in any case, thrived here solely after 1,535, during the rule of Mughal sovereign Humayun and his successors.

1. The Carpet Export Promotion Council (CEPC)

The Carpet Export Promotion Council (CEPC) is the summit group of exporters of hand-made rugs and other floor covers in India. The Council helps exporters by recognizing new business sectors, giving monetary guides, supporting cooperation in overall occasions, masterminding purchaser vendor meets and settling exchange questions.

2. India as the biggest exporter of handcrafted rugs

Today, the flawless masterpieces made by more than 2 million Indian Carpet Weavers and Craftsmen, generally expert craftsmen, keep on captivating the shoppers the world over. Indian floor coverings are known for their heavenly plans, complicated examples, clear tones, and incomparable craftsmanship.

3. The statistics

India is responsible for around 40 percent of the worldwide export of handmade carpets. Export of carpets from India stood at US$ 1.37 billion in FY20, while that of handicrafts excluding handmade carpets reached US$ 1.79 billion during the same period. The total carpet export was US$ 1.33 billion between April 2020 and February 2021 and for handicrafts, excluding handmade carpets, it was US$ 1.53 billion.

4. Carpet weaving is a craftsmanship

Carpet weaving is a craftsmanship that is molded by specific abilities. For a person to be in business, you should have some essential skills required. Ownership of the accompanying skills will help you better in surviving as well as thriving in the business. Skills include leadership, an eye for detail, innovation, and responsibility, and so on.

5. Major Carpet manufacturing belts across India are:

Indian weavers have taken in the magic of colours and further upgraded their weaving abilities. As of now, Indian rug weavers are giving a more tasteful touch to make their rug plans circulate around the web across the globe. In addition, this artistry is not, at this point, an exchange confined in the villages or towns. Rather, it has quickly developed, spreading its wings on the domestic front just as across the worldwide business sectors.

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