We will commence this article with a real-life example. There was a vibrant senior citizen who had only a few teeth left in his mouth. Despite these teeth being in good condition with no issues, his son insisted he get a complete set of artificial dentures. Against his own wishes, he was taken to some dental quack in a village. In just two sessions, all his remaining teeth were removed. The process was excruciatingly painful for the elderly man, leaving his gums deeply sore. The pain kept him awake at night, and the poorly crafted dentures caused discomfort. Over subsequent visits, the son hesitated to accompany his father and neglected taking him to a qualified dentist.
To manage the pain, the local compounder recommended painkillers that unfortunately harmed his kidneys. This took a toll on his personality. He became withdrawn and unwilling to engage in conversations. His interactions with his children, even on the phone, became rare. Sadly, due to severe depression, he passed away one morning from a cardiac arrest. This case study highlights the importance of seeking professional dental care. Oral health is a crucial aspect of overall health that spans our entire lives. Poor oral health and untreated dental problems significantly impact the elderly’s quality of life. Senior citizens are more susceptible to dental issues due to factors such as age-related changes, medications affecting oral health, reduced saliva production, gum recession, and the cumulative effects of years of dental wear and tear.
With advancing age, senior citizens become particularly prone to specific dental concerns. Recognising and taking prompt action against these common issues is crucial for maintaining their oral health. This comprehensive guide to dental care explores the various problems that commonly affect senior citizens, including tooth decay, gum disease, dry mouth, tooth loss, and oral cancer. By understanding these challenges and adopting preventive measures, we can ensure that senior citizens continue to flaunt healthy and confident smiles during their golden years.
Prevention: To prevent tooth decay, seniors should follow proper oral hygiene practices. Brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and flossing daily can help remove plaque and food particles that contribute to decay. Reducing the consumption of sugary snacks and drinks also plays a significant role in preventing cavities.
Symptoms: Seniors experiencing tooth decay may notice sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures, pain while chewing, or visible holes or pits in their teeth.
Treatment: If tooth decay is detected, a dentist will remove the decayed portion and fill the cavity with a dental filling material.
Gum Disease (Gingivitis and Periodontitis):
Prevention: Proper oral hygiene, including regular brushing and flossing, is crucial in preventing gum disease. Seniors should also use antimicrobial mouthwash and avoid smoking or using tobacco products.
Symptoms: Symptoms of gum disease include swollen, red, and bleeding gums, bad breath, receding gums, and the formation of pockets between teeth and gums.
Treatment: For mild cases, professional dental cleaning and improved oral hygiene practices can help manage gum disease. In more advanced cases, scaling and root planing may be necessary, along with antibiotics.
Dry Mouth (Xerostomia):
Prevention: Seniors can prevent dry mouth by staying hydrated, avoiding alcohol and tobacco, and using lozenges to stimulate saliva production.
Symptoms: Dry mouth can cause persistent discomfort, difficulty swallowing, altered taste sensations, and cracked lips.
Treatment: Seniors should sip water frequently and consider using saliva substitutes to alleviate dry mouth symptoms. Addressing underlying causes, such as medication side effects, is also important.
Prevention: Seniors with tooth sensitivity should use a soft toothbrush and avoid aggressive brushing. Using toothpaste designed for sensitive teeth can help manage this issue.
Symptoms: Seniors experiencing tooth sensitivity may feel sharp pain when consuming hot, cold, sweet, or acidic foods or beverages.
Treatment: Desensitizing toothpaste, fluoride treatments, and dental bonding can help reduce tooth sensitivity and improve comfort.
Prevention: Maintaining good oral hygiene practices and attending regular dental check-ups are essential to prevent tooth loss. Seniors should also consider wearing mouthguards during sports activities to prevent dental injuries.
Symptoms: Tooth loss can lead to gaps between teeth, difficulty chewing, altered speech, and changes in bite alignment.
Treatment: Dental implants, bridges, and dentures are common treatment options to replace missing teeth and restore oral function.
Prevention: Seniors can reduce the risk of oral cancer by avoiding tobacco products, limiting alcohol consumption, using lip balm with sun protection, and attending regular dental check-ups.
Symptoms: Symptoms of oral cancer may include sores that do not heal, persistent pain, difficulty swallowing, and changes in the appearance of the mouth.
Treatment: Treatment options for oral cancer include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Oral Thrush (Candidiasis):
Prevention: Maintaining good oral hygiene practices and managing underlying medical conditions can help prevent oral thrush in seniors.
Symptoms: Seniors with oral thrush may experience white patches on the tongue and inner cheeks, soreness, and altered taste sensations.
Treatment: Antifungal medications prescribed by a dentist, along with proper oral hygiene, can effectively treat oral thrush.
Prevention: Seniors should clean their dentures daily and remove them at night to allow gums to rest. Avoiding the use of abrasive cleaners can also prevent denture damage.
Symptoms: Denture problems can manifest as discomfort, sores, difficulty chewing, and dentures not fitting properly.
Treatment: Denture adjustment, relining, or replacement may be necessary to address denture-related issues.
Bruxism (Teeth Grinding):
Prevention: Seniors can manage teeth grinding by adopting stress management techniques, avoiding caffeine and alcohol, and wearing a custom-made mouthguard at night.
Symptoms: Bruxism can lead to worn-down teeth, jaw pain, headaches, and facial pain.
Treatment: Wearing a mouthguard during sleep can help protect teeth from the effects of bruxism, while stress reduction techniques can address the underlying causes.
Bad Breath (Halitosis): -
Prevention: Seniors should maintain regular oral hygiene practices, including brushing and flossing, cleaning the tongue, staying hydrated, and avoiding strong-smelling foods.
Symptoms: Seniors with bad breath may experience persistent unpleasant odour and taste in the mouth.
Treatment: Addressing bad breath involves maintaining good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and addressing any underlying dental or medical issues contributing to the problem.
Understanding the common oral and dental problems that seniors may face, along with their prevention, symptoms, and treatment, is essential for maintaining optimal oral health in later years. By adopting good oral hygiene practices, attending regular dental check-ups, and promptly addressing any dental concerns, seniors can enjoy improved overall well-being and quality of life.
Benefits of dentures and artificial teeth, that contribute to overall well-being and quality of life of seniors.
Restoring Functionality: As seniors age, their natural teeth may weaken, crack, or fall out due to various factors like decay, gum disease, and general wear. Dentures and artificial teeth are designed to replicate the function of natural teeth, enabling seniors to eat a diverse range of foods and maintain proper nutrition. This restoration of chewing ability can significantly enhance their quality of life by preventing nutritional deficiencies and promoting overall health.
Enhancing Speech: Missing teeth can lead to difficulties in speech, affecting enunciation and causing embarrassment. Dentures and artificial teeth help seniors articulate words clearly and confidently, facilitating effective communication and enabling them to engage more actively in conversations and social interactions.
Boosting Confidence and Self-Esteem: The physical appearance of teeth plays a crucial role in one’s self-image. Missing teeth can lead to self-consciousness and a diminished sense of confidence. Dentures and artificial teeth provide seniors with a complete and natural-looking smile, restoring their self-esteem and allowing them to smile and interact with others without hesitation.
Preventing Bone Loss: When natural teeth are lost, the jawbone can start to deteriorate due to lack of stimulation. Dentures and artificial teeth help maintain the structure of the jawbone by providing support and preventing further bone loss. This preservation of bone density is essential for maintaining facial contours and overall oral health.
Customization for Comfort: Modern dentures and artificial teeth are crafted to fit the unique contours of an individual’s mouth, ensuring optimal comfort and stability. Properly fitted dentures alleviate discomfort and irritation, allowing seniors to enjoy their daily activities without being hindered by oral discomfort.
Adapting to Lifestyle: Dentures and artificial teeth can be customised to suit a senior’s lifestyle, whether they prefer removable dentures or fixed implant-supported solutions. This adaptability ensures that seniors can choose an option that aligns with their preferences and needs.
Preserving Natural Teeth: For seniors with a few remaining natural teeth, partial dentures can help maintain the alignment of these teeth, preventing them from shifting and causing bite issues. This proactive approach preserves the integrity of their existing teeth and prevents further oral health complications.
Improved Digestion and Nutrition: Properly functioning dentures enhance the chewing process, which is essential for proper digestion. Seniors can effectively break down food and absorb nutrients, contributing to their overall health and well-being.
Dr Zubair Saleem is a Senior Geriatric Consultant and Gerontologist and Dr Showkat Rashid Wani is a Senior Coordinator, Directorate of Distance Education, University of Kashmir