When toxic substances enter Lakes, streams, rivers and other water bodies they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of water deteriorates affecting ecosystem. Pollutants can also seep down and affect ground water. The city sewage and industrial waste are major contribution to water pollution. Very less percentage of waste water generated is treated and the rest is discharged as it is in water bodies. Agricultural runoff or water from fields that drain into rivers is another major pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.
The water quality management in India is accomplished under the provision of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974. The basic objective of this Act is to maintain and restore the wholesomeness of natural aquatic resource by prevention and control of pollution.
In order to assess the nature and extent of pollution and measures needed to control it. Water Quality Monitoring is an important prerequisite: the objectives being:
1. Evaluate Water Quality trend over a period of time.
2. Assess assimilative capacity of water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control.
3. Asses the fitness of water for different uses.
4. Rational Planning of Pollution Control Strategies and their prioritization.
5. Evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already in existence
National Water Monitoring Network (NWMP)
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Delhi in collaboration with Jammu & Kashmir State Pollution Control Board, Jammu has established water quality monitoring network at 27 stations covering 5 Districts of Jammu region. The network covers Six Rivers (Tawi, Chenab, Banganga, Basantar, Ujh, Devak at Udhampur and Utterbehni), Two Lakes (Mansar and Surinsar), Two Wells (Dug Well, Gaghwal and Tubewell at SICOP, Kathua) One Pond (Maladhar Talab Hatli, Kathua) and a Wetland (Gharana, R.S. Pura). Water Quality monitoring is done on quarterly basis in surface water bodies while on Half yearly basis in ground water station. Water samples are being analyzed for 24 Physico-Chemical Parameters for water samples apart from Field Observation.
Field Observation: Weather, Approximate Depth of main stream, Color, Odor, Visible Effluent Discharge, Human activities around station, Station Detail, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen(DO).
Core Parameters: pH, Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate-N, Nitrite-N.
General Parameters: Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Ammonia-N, Total Dissolved solids, Total Suspended solids, turbidity, Total Hardness, Fluoride, boron, Chloride, sulphate, Total alkalinity, Phenolphthalein alkalinity, Phosphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium.
Water Bodies of Kashmir
The beautiful Kashmir Valley has over a thousand small and large water bodies, which are the bedrock of both its ecology and its economy. Unfortunately over the last century, massive urbanization around these water bodies has led to pollution, siltation due to deforestation and overexploitation of the many streams and lakes. Many have shrunk to a fraction of their original size while some have all but disappeared.
According to the State Water Mission, water bodies in Kashmir are the worst victims of human interference and rapid urbanization. Massive erosion in the catchment area is resulting in these lakes becoming silted up, thereby converting water areas into landmasses. Other water bodies have disappeared due to natural causes like glacial action and low precipitation. Some are on the verge of extinction.
More than 50% of water bodies in Srinagar and its suburbs have been lost during the past century, Humayun Rashid and Gowher Naseem of Srinagar's Directorate of Environment, Ecology and Remote Sensing have concluded in a study.
"During the past century, deforestation in the Jhelum basin led to excessive siltation in most of the lakes and water bodies of Srinagar and subsequent human greed brought about sustainable reclamation and land-use change in these assets of high ecological value," the study said. More than 9,119 hectares of open water surface and wetland have disappeared between 1911 and 2014, while only 6,873 hectares were preserved.
Wetlands in the Kashmir Valley
The marshy and water body area of Dal Lake, a major tourist attraction in Srinagar, has shrunk from 2,547 hectares in 1971 to 1,620 hectares in 2008, estimated a paper titled Impact of Urban Land Transformation on Water Bodies. Although it has lost almost half of its water surface area in 40 years, it still looks like a water body. Adjoining lakes like Gilsar, Khushalsar and Aanchar have all but disappeared because the drainage system of the Dal which used to feed these small water bodies has been converted into landmass through heavy siltation.
Shakil Romshoo of Kashmir University's Earth Sciences department has suggested that measures like de-siltation of water bodies and afforestation programmes in catchment areas of the Jhelum, Kashmir's major river system, should start on a war-footing while construction should be totally banned in ecologically fragile areas."If the indifference of successive governments and the greed of the society at large have led to the degradation of our water bodies, we at least have to think of measures to save them from further degradation before it is too late," Romshoo said.
According to C.L.Trisal the studies carried out on the physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments, biological features and nutrient dynamics of Dal Lake by various investigators are reviewed. The results indicate that the direct discharge of sewage from houseboats, reduction of plant cover in the catchment area, interruptions to the flow of water, human encroachments, increase in population within the catchment area, etc, have resulted in the deterioration of water quality, prolific growth of aquatic macrophytes and siltation. Based on the data available some measures are proposed for conservation of the lake's ecosystem..
Towns like Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Srinagar and Sopore – must-see places on the tourist map of the valley – owe their existence to water bodies. These include the Lidder River, the Hokarsar wetland, Dal Lake, Wullar Lake and the Manasbal Lake. According to tourism department officials, over 10 lakh tourists visit these places annually and around three lakh people are directly and indirectly dependent on these tourist places for their livelihood.
The multimillion dollar handicrafts industry of Kashmir, which gives employment to over two lakh people, is also heavily dependent upon the arrival of tourists in the region. A study on the Impact of Tourism Industry on Economic Development of Jammu and Kashmir says that almost 50-60% of the total population of Jammu and Kashmir is directly or indirectly engaged in tourism-related activities. The industry contributes 15% to the state's GDP.
Another big contribution of Kashmir's water bodies to the state's economy is the revenue generated through taxation of water usage for electricity generation by power development agencies like the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation. According to Jammu and Kashmir's Economic Survey of 2014, revenue of Rs 24.2 crore has been realized since 2010 on account of water usage charges on hydroelectric projects in the state.
It is estimated that over 1.5 lakh Kashmiris get direct and indirect employment from sand extraction and fishing. Figures available with the geology and mining department suggest that sand worth 15 crores is extracted each year from Kashmir's water bodies, particularly from the Jhelum and its tributaries, through the organized sector. This does not take into account the fact that 40% of sand extraction – worth Rs 7.5 crore – is carried out illegally, an official said on condition of anonymity.
Fisheries is another big livelihood generation sector linked to the water bodies. Masood Hussain Balkhi of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology said that aquatic resources of Jammu and Kashmir form about 16% of the total area of inland aquatic resources of India. Fisheries are an Rs 5.5 crore industry in Kashmir and employ over 90,000 people both directly and indirectly.
His colleague, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, added that annual fish production of the region is 20,000 tonnes. Fish diversity and production in Kashmir have shown a sharp decline over the past few decades and some local fish species had even become endangered and threatened. The ramagurun (Botia birdi), for instance, which was once abundant, has now almost disappeared as has the algaad (Schzothorax niger), Bhat said, blaming encroachment, pollution and siltation.
Table 1: Physcio-Chemical Analysis of Dal Lake water at diffrent locations for the year
Parameters / Location Dalgate Nehru Park Nishat Water Pt Hazratbal Nigeen Behind Club
Air Temp. oC 20.3 20.4 20.6 20.4 20.6
Water Temp. oC 14.4 14.8 14.7 14.7 15.6
pH 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.9
Conductivity us/cm 177.2 158.8 163.1 307.6 231.6
D.O 5.7 7.2 6.4 5.8 6.2
C.O.D 21.6 22.5 39.4 34.0 24.5
B.O.D 1.8 1.8 2.2 3.6 2.0
Phosphate 0.17 0.199 0.241 0.43 0.148
Hardness 128.8 124.2 152.2 202.6 167.4
Chloride 12.2 11.4 10.5 16.8 15.6
(DataSource:StatePollutionControlBoard,Jammu and Kashmir)
The efficiency of a few STPs constructed at Lam, Hazratbal, Habak and Brari Numbal has been doubted by certain experts. The treated wastewater of these STPs is allowed to flow back into the lake which needs close monitoring. Besides, the direct depositing of faecal matter into the lake from the house boats poses a devastating problem of pollution.
Massive vegetation growth in Dal Lake is one of the main obstacles in maintaining the glory of the lake. Rapid vegetation growth occurs due to fast accumulation of nutrients as untreated waste flows straight into Dal Lake and other water bodies of the region.
Clear and present danger
Having destroyed the water bodies, people have become vulnerable to exacerbated natural disasters like flooding. The September 2014 floods, the worst in Kashmir in the century, inundated Srinagar and at least 50 villages and killed 200 people, apart from directly affecting 20 lakh people across the region.
"Kashmir Valley is essentially a flood plain of the river Jhelum and its tributaries, rivulets, streams and canals," Aijaz Hassan Ganie, a research fellow at the department of botany in Kashmir University, explained in an article in September that year. "All the valley lakes and the vast associated swamps played an important role in maintaining the uniformity of flows in the river Jhelum. In the past, during the peak summers, whenever the river would flow high, these lakes and swamps used to act as places for storage of excessive water and thereby prevented large areas of the valley from floods."
While the impact of human activities and natural processes has already put Kashmir's people in danger, the deterioration of water bodies will intensify further if required measures are not taken in time. Politicians such as Kashmir's environment minister Bali Bhagat have acknowledged the problem. He said that his department "will definitely look into the causes of deterioration and start taking measures for conservation of water bodies accordingly".
Rivers: Rivers are like arteries that flow into the heart, the ocean. The Global Alert platform links stakeholders of inland watersheds, anywhere in the world, with the ocean.
Healthy marine and coastal ecosystems are critical to all life on earth and provide necessary services, including food security, resources for economic growth, recreation and tourism, all of which can hinder or benefit the welfare of the coastline itself. Roughly 8 million tons of plastic enters the oceans each year. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has estimated that over 70% of marine debris starts out on land. From there it makes its way into the lakes, rivers and streams that form an extensive network that can carry trash across continents and straight into the heart of the world's ocean. Floating trash has no geographic or political boundaries, so solutions must involve scalable international collaboration, yet be local in scope and reach.
River Jhelum the Lifeline of Srinagar Under threat
Life in the Srinagar city and elsewhere in Kashmir revolves around the river Jhelum. The Jhelum River drains the Kashmir valley and it originates from a small spring at Verinag though its true source is a few kilometers further to South East. The four streams viz. Sandran, Bringi, Arapath and Lidder join the Jhelum close to Anantnag near Khanabal. The length of the Jhelum from its source to Baramulla is 241 Kms. The major towns (population 2011 census) contributing pollution to the river are Anantnag (11.72 lacs), Kulgam (4.23 lacs), Shopian (2.65 lacs), Pulwama (5.70 lacs), Srinagar (12.50 lacs), Budgam (7.55 lacs), Ganderbal (2.97 lacs) and Baramulla (10.15 lacs). The wastewater from these towns is discharged into nallahs, drains, canals, which ultimately reach the river Jhelum and is the main source of its pollution.
The River flows through a long stretch of Kashmir region before finally surrendering itself to Indus River (823 kms). The Jehlum bifurcates the beautiful Srinagar city into two parts. The wonderful lakes are mostly connected by water from Jhelum.
Table : Physico-Chemical Analysis of river Jhelum at different locations for the year 2012 (Feb-July)
Parameters / Location Khanbal Awantipora Pampore Panthachowk Zero Bridge
Air Temp. oC 19.0 18.4 18.2 18.7 18.7
Water Temp.oC 10.3 10.6 10.1 10.45 10.4
pH 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Conductivity us/cm 214.8 181.6 180.0 184.9 195.1
D.O 6.91 6.9 6.7 6.49 6.16
C.O.D 35.20 24.20 24.50 31.76 47.40
B.O.D 2.10 1.40 1.80 2.30 3.30
Phosphate 0.234 0.2 0.3 0.27 0.34
Hardness 149.8 117.8 122.6 123.3 130.2
Chloride 12.1 11.9 11.6 11.1 15.8
(Data Source: State Pollution Control Board, Jammu and Kashmir)
Srinagar City has 54 dewatering Plants and 32 discharge into river Jhelum .River Jhelum is also one of the source of drinking water supply for Srinagar, Sopore and Baramulla. With high growth of urban areas and increase in development which includes increase in supply of drinking water, augmentation of sewerage systems, the quantum of untreated wastewater and solid waste is rapidly increasing. It is therefore imperative to undertake remedial measures for prevention of pollution of river Jhelum by formulating schemes for environmental infrastructure works to intercept divert and treat the domestic and industrial wastewater. The programme must also addresses the problems of siltation, bank erosion and agricultural run-off containing pesticides and fertilizers with the help and close interaction with the concerned nodal ministries. The Bio-diversity of the river must be studied and monitored to restore its ecological status Schemes for pollution abatement under the Jhelum River Conservation Plan (JRCP) are proposed to be implemented. The investment costs for the implementation of the schemes shall be borne by the Govt. of India. The costs for operation and maintenance of the assets to be created under the project shall be fully borne by the J&K State Govt. It is imperative to undertake remedial measures for prevention of pollution of river Jhelum by formulating schemes for environmental infrastructure works to intercept divert and treat the domestic and industrial wastewater. Esro Emphasis shall be laid on appropriate treatment technologies and resource recovery from sewage/sullage, by using the treated sewage for irrigation, sludge for manure. The schemes under the JRCP will be implemented by the J&K state government through its identified nodal agency, J&K Lakes and Waterways Development Authority (LWWDA), Srinagar. The project lays a strong emphasis on public participation and institutional development to sustain the programme in the long term. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, GoI, is coordinating the overall implementation of the programme through the National River Conservation Directorate.
The following categories of works should be taken up under this programme.
* Interception & Diversion of municipal wastewater
* Low cost sanitation
* Improved crematoria
* Solid Waste Management
* Bio-monitoring and Water Quality Monitoring studies
* Improvement of ghats
* Afforestation along the river banks
* Community participation
* Institutional Development and Training
In UEED I have been associated in framing of the following projects in eighties:
• Sewerage & Drainage Project of Srinagar City with the Delhi based "Consulting Engineers". The project suffered for want of international funding.
• Low Cost Sanitation Scheme for Srinagar City with UNICEF assistance involving Sulabh International Patna with some of our innovations. The scheme was handed over to SMC for implementation. This project was helpful in removing the direct flow of the faecal matter into the surface drains.
• Solid waste disposal scheme for Greater Srinagar city with Delhi based consultants namely "Universal Enviroscience". The proposed mechanical compost plant never came up, instead the landfill method was chosen.
• In SDA in nineties, as Project Director a project report for Inland Water Transport on River Jhelum was got prepared by me retaining M/S Rites as the consultants, but against introduction of the proposed vessels only a few motor boats were introduced. Besides providing an alternative transport to decongest the city roads, it would have helped to keep stirring the slow moving waters of the river.
Educational & Social Research Organization (Esro) is hopeful that programme will also addresses the problems of siltation, bank erosion and agricultural run-off containing pesticides and fertilizers with the help and close interaction with the concerned nodal ministries. The Bio-diversity of the river will have to be studied and monitored to restore its ecological status. While the schemes under the Jhelum River Conservation Plan are being implemented on the same lines as in Ganga Action Plan Phase – I, Esro expect special emphasis to be laid in order to reduce the cost on sewage conveyance and minimizing the energy needs for pumping the sewage. Efforts must be made to decentralize the sewage conveyance and treatment facilities. Also a strong emphasis must be laid on the sustainability of project investments by adopting an Integrated Approach in Project Planning, Formulation, Implementation and giving adequate attention to Community Participation, Gender issues, Institutional Development & Operation and Maintenance aspects. It is stated that Esro will provide ever possible services for the conservation of the River Jhelum, when ever made to do so.
(Paper presented on World Water Day March 22, 2017 at the Institution of Engineers J&K State Centre Srinagar by Er. Mohammad Ashraf Fazili FIE)